99 Jahre Russische Revolution – Deutungen der Macht und Wahrnehmung in der Gesellschaft

Von Ekaterina Makhotina und Philipp Bürger

img_4164

Lenin-Statue in Arkhangelsk – Foto: © Ekaterina Makhotina

Heute jährt sich zum 99. Mal die „Große Sozialistische Oktoberrevolution“ des Jahres 1917.[1] Das Gedenken dieses Tages und an diesem Tag ist komplex: Wie zu Zeiten der Sowjetunion wird auch heute wieder eine große Militärparade auf dem Roten Platz in Moskau stattfinden. Doch anders als bis zum 7. November 1990 – als die letzte Parade zu Ehren der Oktoberrevolution stattfand und in einem versuchten Attentat auf Michail Gorbačev gipfelte – begeht man heute den „Feierlichen Marsch zu Ehren des 75. Jahrestages der Parade am 7. November 1941“. Man erinnert also nicht an die Okoberrevolution, sondern an die Parade, die vor 75 Jahren zu Ehren der Revolution abgehalten wurde. Kurz vor dem runden Jubiläum des kommenden Jahres lohnt sich also ein Blick darauf, woran heute in Russland erinnert wird und wie 1917 gedeutet wird. Welchen Platz nimmt die Oktoberrevolution in der heutigen russischen Geschichtspolitik ein und welchen die Februarrevolution? Wie wird 1917 durch Medien der Erinnerung – wie Museen, Schulbücher oder Gedenktage – vermittelt?

Weiterlesen

The Strange Case of Miro Barešić – Reflections on a Controversial Memorialisation in Croatia

On July 31, 2016, Tomo Medved, the outgoing Minister for War Veterans in Croatia, visited the village of Draga, located near the Croatian coastal town of Sibenik. Here he delivered a remarkable speech, stating that:

Miro Barešić is one of the greatest Croatian patriots whose work and sacrifice we have to respect. For years, in the diaspora and in the Homeland War, he fought for a free and an independent Croatia and never gave up on his ideas, although he felt the injustice that was systematically inflicted on Croats. Like many other immigrants, who were willing to give their lives for Croatia, he was a ‚defender before defenders‘. He returned from Paraguay, even though he knew that in Croatia there are people who persecuted him, but he participated in the war and experienced the realization of his dream. Thank you, Miro, for an independent, sovereign and free Croatia.

The speech was held on the opening ceremony of a monument dedicated to Miro Barešić, a Croatian soldier in Croatia’s 1990s war, who was killed in combat against rebelling Croatian Serbs in 1991. The phrase ‘Homeland War’ that Medved used, is the official name used in Croatia for the 1990s war, in which Croatian forces fought against the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) and rebelling Croatian Serbs.

The war started in 1991 and ended in late 1995. Most fighting ceased after August 1995, when Croatia sucessfully conducted the notorious military campaign „Oluja“ (Storm), which was – during and in the aftermath of the operation – accompanied by crimes against local Serbs. The word „defender“, how Medved referred to Barešić, is also an official and widely used term in Croatia for Croatian 1990s war veterans – not for rebelling Serb soldiers. Therefore, how people in Croatia refer to the War and to the soldiers who fought in it, says a lot about the existing narratives of the war. And this is particularly true in the strange case of Miro Barešić …

Weiterlesen