Erinnerungen an den Krieg – Krieg der Erinnerungen: Erste umfassende Studie zur Erinnerung an den Zweiten Weltkrieg in Litauen erschienen

Covers des Buchs "Erinnerungen an den Krieg- Krieg der Erinnerungen", © Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016

Erinnerungen an den Krieg – Krieg der Erinnerungen. Litauen und der Zweite Weltkrieg. Cover: © Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016

Der 9. Mai ist in Litauen umstritten: Die russischsprachigen Litauer feiern das Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs 1945 als Tag des Sieges. Die Mehrheit der Gesellschaft sieht die Litauer als Opfer zweier Besatzungsmächte, der deutschen und der sowjetischen. Allein dieses Beispiel zeigt, wie unterschiedlich die Erinnerungsdiskurse in der Baltenrepublik sind.Welche Erinnerungsstränge sich in Geschichte und Gegenwart entwickelt haben, und wie diese in Museen, Denkmälern und Gedenkpraktiken ihren Ausdruck finden, hat Ekaterina Makhotina in ihrer soeben erschienen Studie „Erinnerungen an den Krieg – Krieg der Erinnerungen. Litauen und der Zweite Weltkrieg“ erstmals umfassend untersucht. Sie nimmt sich darin einer bemerkenswerten Leerstelle im nationalen Gedächtnis Litauens an. In den letzten Jahren hat dort die Erinnerung an den Gulag die Erinnerung an den Krieg überlagert. Dadurch wird die eigene Verwicklung in den NS-Terror weitgehend ausgeblendet.

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The Strange Case of Miro Barešić – Reflections on a Controversial Memorialisation in Croatia

On July 31, 2016, Tomo Medved, the outgoing Minister for War Veterans in Croatia, visited the village of Draga, located near the Croatian coastal town of Sibenik. Here he delivered a remarkable speech, stating that:

Miro Barešić is one of the greatest Croatian patriots whose work and sacrifice we have to respect. For years, in the diaspora and in the Homeland War, he fought for a free and an independent Croatia and never gave up on his ideas, although he felt the injustice that was systematically inflicted on Croats. Like many other immigrants, who were willing to give their lives for Croatia, he was a ‚defender before defenders‘. He returned from Paraguay, even though he knew that in Croatia there are people who persecuted him, but he participated in the war and experienced the realization of his dream. Thank you, Miro, for an independent, sovereign and free Croatia.

The speech was held on the opening ceremony of a monument dedicated to Miro Barešić, a Croatian soldier in Croatia’s 1990s war, who was killed in combat against rebelling Croatian Serbs in 1991. The phrase ‘Homeland War’ that Medved used, is the official name used in Croatia for the 1990s war, in which Croatian forces fought against the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) and rebelling Croatian Serbs.

The war started in 1991 and ended in late 1995. Most fighting ceased after August 1995, when Croatia sucessfully conducted the notorious military campaign „Oluja“ (Storm), which was – during and in the aftermath of the operation – accompanied by crimes against local Serbs. The word „defender“, how Medved referred to Barešić, is also an official and widely used term in Croatia for Croatian 1990s war veterans – not for rebelling Serb soldiers. Therefore, how people in Croatia refer to the War and to the soldiers who fought in it, says a lot about the existing narratives of the war. And this is particularly true in the strange case of Miro Barešić …

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